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NO. 261, JPikVL-STRF.PT ; 

And Samuel S. ^ooiJiS Cd.;No. 212, Ma>k€t.sf reet, 






THE object of this volume is to convey to the read- 
er the derivation of many old and curious sayings, that 
are repeatedly occurring to us, as well as the origin of 
names given to most of the principal streets in London. 
It is hoped, that it will be found to contain whatever is 
most worthy of notice, its intent being both to amuse 
and Instruct. 

The editor has in some instances, referred to those 
works from whence extracts have been made ; by which 
method, individuals, should they think proper, may 
have recourse to the originals. 

For the greater facility in finding any particular ar- 
ticle, an index is affixed to the volume. 

This book was first printed in London, and con- 
taining many things of which most people are ignorant, 
we have thought it worthy an 4.merican impression.-— 
Aboutonehalfof the original matter has been left out, 
part of which, being quite uninteresting, and part im- 
proper to be retained in memory. A little has been ad- 
ded, such as the boxing match, duels, &c. 

1 ^ . 





Origin cf the barbarous custom of throwing at 
Cocks on Shrove Ttiesday. 

WHEN the Danes were masters of Eng 
land, and lorded it over the natives of the 
Island, the inhabitants of a certain great 
<^ityj grown weary of their slavery, had for- 
med a secret conspiracy, to murder their 
masters in one bloody night, and twelve men 
had undertaken to enter the town-house by 
astratagem, and seizing the arms, were to sur- 
prise the guard which kept it ; at which time 
their fellow comrades, upon a signal given, 
were to come out of their houses, and mur- 
der all opposers. But when they were put- 
ting their plan in execution, the unusual 
crowing and fluttering of the cocks, about 
tbe place they attempted to enter at, dis* 


covered their design; upon which, the 
Danes became so enraged, that thej doub- 
led their cruelty, and used them with more 
severitj than ever. But being soon after 
freed from the Danish yoke, to revenge 
themselves on the cocks, for the misfortune 
they had involved them in, they instituted 
this custom of knocking them on the head 
on Shrove Tuesday^ the day on which it 
happened. This sport, though at first only 
practised in one city, in process of time 
became a national divsrtisement, and has 
continued ever since the Danes first lost 
this island. Ornithologianova^ 1743. 

Origin of Christmas Boxes. 

On looking into history, we find that this 
custom derived its existence much about the 
time that mass was first said by a catholic 
priest. Rome, which originally gave birth 
to superstition, had an incredible number of 
clergy to support, and among other devices 
this was invented as one, and took its name 
of mass from the latin word mitto^ to send. 

This word mitto was a kind of remem- 
brancer, or rather dictator^ which said, 
'< send gifts, oflferings, and ablations to the 

priests, that they may intercede with Christ 
to save jour soul by saying so many masS" 


Hence it was called Christ* s-masSy or, as 
it is now abbreviated, Christmas. 

Thns far the etymology of the word is in- 
disputable, and every man who has attend- 
ed to the minutiae of sacred history, must 
know the fact to be as here related. 
The word box, is a part of the same priest- 
craft trade, and took its origin from the fol* 
lowing circumstance : 

Whenever a ship sailed from any of those 
ports where the religious profession was un- 
der the authority of Rome, a certain saint 
was always named, unto whose protection 
its safety was committed, and in that ship 
there was a box, and into that box every 

Soor person put something, in order to in- 
uce the priests to pray to that saint for 
the safe return of the vessel ; which box 
was locked up by the priests, who said the 
money should not be taken out until the ves- 
sel came back. 

This box was called << ChrisVs Mass box" 
To vassals and servants, who at that time 
composed a great part of the lower order of 
the people, there w&s allowed a liberty of 
soliciting gifts from the rich, in order to en- 
able them to put money into the box, as well 


for masses, and for the safe retarn of the 
ship, as for the benefit of their own souls, 
and the forgiveness of sins. 

This proving lucrative to the clergy, they 
90 contrived in due time, that the cuHtom 
became universal, and the priests had box* 
es wherever there was a chapel in which 
mass was said : and as without the penny 
there was no paternoster^ so it became a 
regular custom at the festivals of the Nativi- 
ty, of Easter, and the Whitsuntide, to put 
money in those boxes. 

In process of time the ship money was 
totally^ laid aside, and the priests took hold 
of Lent as the principal time to collect mass 
money for the remission of sins : but still 
the old custom of poor people soliciting gifts 
continued : and as the winter season was 
best adapted to excite chari.y, the money 
for Christ's mass-box was solicited at the 
close of the year, and from that time to this, 
continues a custom, although what was so- 
licited for the benefit of the soul in former 
days, is in the present time appropriated to 
the sensual gratifications of the body ; as 
what the priests got for fasting and praying, 
is now spent by the laity in eating and drink- 


Origin rf the order of the Garter. 

King Edward the Third, so deservedly 
celebrated in English history, was a prince 
of the most exalted soul and undaunted 
bravery, and capable of undertaking the 
greatest enterprises : for forty years of his 
reign, he not only maintained his people's 
rights from the invasion of foreigners, and 
private sedition at home, but even vastly 
added to his dominions, by his glorious ac- 
quisitions abroad. By the right of Queen 
Isabel, his mother, he had some pretensions 
to the crown of France, which he so far im- 
proved by the force of his arms, that he 
defeated the French in many memorable 
battles with incredible loss ; and, by his con- 
tinued victories, reduced them to such ex- 
tremities, that he at last took their king pris- 
oner, and brought him to London, where, 
after a few years, upon very advantageous 
conditions, he set him at liberty, and quar- 
tered the arms of France with those of Eng- 

After a long succession of foreign con- 
quests, he met with some domestic distur- 
bances, occasioned by the discontent of a 
dethroned king of Scotland, who, taking ad- 
vantage of the king's absence, had raised a 
considerable army, and committed several 

tague ; but, by tbe unexpected ; 
arrival of King Edward, the S< 
the siege, and returned home, 
castle as they found it. But all 
beings are subject to the vicit 
fortune ; so he, that had here 
quished so manj thousands, w 
now wholly subdued by that p\ 
nrhich now became the conquei 
[]uerors, and triumphed over this 
ifter the flight of the enemy, th< 
irmed himself, and with several 
]uality entered the < astle, where 
it saw, but he was inflamed wit) 
idored the charming Countess of 
ind now looked upon all his forme 

._ L^ - JJ5a? I 1 


which heightened his passion to such a de- 
gree, that he made several efforts on her 
virtue ; but she still refused all bis tempta- 
tions with the greatest conslancj, and most 
steady resolution. 

Among the many honours the king did 
her, he made a royal entertainment at Wind- 
sor, to which she, with all the nobility of 
both sexes were invited ; and as in the midst 
of their diversion, he was dancing with her, 
she happened to drop one of her garters, 
which the king perceiving, took up, whilst 
the rest of the bright assembly were in a 
general smile : to countenance the blushing 
lady, and to put a better gloss upon so pret- 
ty an action of gallantry, the king turned, 
and addressing them in French, said, Uoni 
soit qui mal y pense, i. e. Evil be to him 
who evil thinks. But not being satisfied 
with this, and still desirous to lay the Count- 
ess under greater obligations to him, he em- 
braced the pleasing opportunity this acci- 
dent gave him, and resolving to make her 
yet more sensible of his love, and how much 
he esteemed even the leas<^ trifle that be- 
longed to her, he instituted on this occasion, 
the most noble Order of the Oarler ; the 
ensign or badge of which is a blue ribbon 
worn under the left knee, and on this, Ed- 
ward caused the above French sentence to 


be inscribed as a motto. Such was the ori« 
gin of this august Order, which has ever 
since dignified so mmy kings, princes, and 
nobles. And the Garter continues to be 
the most extraordinary badge of honour and 
mark of distinction the crown of England is 
capable of conferring on its nt)blest subjects, 
or even its possessors themselves. 

Origin of Vegetables. 

Turnips and carrots are thought indigenous 
roots of France. Our cauliflowers came 
from Cyprus ; our artichokes from Sicily ; 
lettuce from Cos, a name corrupted into 
gaustf shallots, or eschallotsfrom Ascalon. 
I have been reading on the subject, and 
was struck with the numerous ideas on com- 
merce and civilization, which may arise 
from a dinner. Will you have a desert 
from memory ? TLe cherry and filbert are 
from Pontus, the citron from Media, the 
chestnut from Castana in Asia Minor, the 
peach and thq walnut from Persia, the 
plumb from Syria, the pomegranate from 
Cyprus, the quince from Cydon, the olive 
and fig from Greece, as are the best apples 
and pears, though also found wild in France, 
and even here. The Apricot is from Ar- 


Or^n of the ward Sack. 

One Emanuel, a Jewish poet, especiallj 
remarkable for pleasantry, who lived at 
Rome about six hundred years ago, gives 
an entertaining account in one of his son- 
netn how the word sack came to remain in 
all languages, as it certainly does at present, 
and in the same sense. They, says he, who 
viere employed at the Tower of Babel, had, 
like our modern workmen, each a sack to 

I)ut their little matters in ; but being strange- 
7 frightened on the Lord's confounding 
their language, every one was for making off, 
calliog out for his sack ; and nothing was 
heard of every where, but sack ! sack ! 
Aq^ thus the word continued to be used in 
all'languages which began to be made use 
of at that juncture* 

Origin of Engraved Copperplates. 

It seems odd, and yet it is a known fact, 
that the most useful discoveries have been 
owing to chance. A Goldsmith of Florence, 
cutting figures on his works without any 
thonght of moulding them with milled sul- 
phury perceived that what came out of the 


mould had on it all the impreBsions of the 
engraving, by means of the black which the 
lulphur extracted from the cuttings ; and 
trying to do the like on silver plates with 
moistened paper, going over it with a smooth 
roller, it succeeded to his wish. A gold- 
imith of the same citj took in hand the like 
experiment, and his success was such, 
that he set about engraving several curious 
pieces. Thus France and Germany soon 
learned from Italy, the art of working cop- 

1)er-plates. England was very late in fol* 
owing the ingenious examples of those na- 
tions, engraving having been soarcely 
known, or at least very little cultivated there, 
till the end of the last century. 

Or^in of the names of some Foreign Wines. 

Our Mountain wine comes from the mount- 
ains around Malaga. Tent is TintOy tinged 
or red wine. Sherry from Xeres, (the Span- 
ish X is pronounced sh or cfe,) in the south 
of Spain, where the great battle was fought 
between the Christians and Saracens, that 
ended in the conquest of Spain by the lat- 

Malmsey was from Malvasia, in Pelopo- 
nesus. This rich wine was afterwards pro- 


pogated at Alicant, the CanarieSi and Ma- 

Jiow crooked men came originally to have the 

title of My Lord. 

In the first year of the reign of King Rich- 
ard the Third, commoolj known by the 
name of Crooked-back, six persons, unhap- 
pily deformed in that part of their bodies, 
were made lords, as a reward for several 
services they had formerly done the king ; 
the novelty whereof occasioned the whole 
nation to make merry with those sort of peo- 
ple, by advising them to go to court, and re- 
ceive an honour which nature seemed to 
have designed them for : from that time the 
mock title o( my Lord has been peculiar to 
such persons. 

Origin of the Custom of making April Fools. 

This -absurd custom is supposed to be de- 
rived from a memorable transaction happen- 
ing between the Romans and SabineSy men- 
iioned by Dionysius, to the following effect' 

The Romans, about the infancy of the 
city, wanting wives, and finding they could 
not obtain the neighbouring women by their 

2 * 

Upon notice hereof, the borderii 
tants, with their whole families, 
Rome, to see this mightj celebrat 
the Romans seized upon a great 
the Sabine virgins^ and ravisl 
which wicked imposition is supp 
the foundation of this foolish cust( 
absurd for a people professing C 
to keep in memory the day. 

Origin of the word Dun 

The true origin of this expre 
its birth to one Joe Duny a famoi 


Dmvatian of the word Parliament, 

This word is of French origin, and is de- 
rived from the word parlement, wkich signi- 
fies discoursing, conferring, or conversing 
with, and is likewise derived from a parler 
le mente^ to speak one's mind ; because in 
conferrences we declare our sentiments. 


The word Osller, which now signifies 
solelj an attendant on horses, is derived 
from the French word hosteller^ a person 
who kept a house of entertainment ; which 
houses were denominated hostels^ and by us 
at this day hotels. Though some persons 
maintained that the word Ostler is purely 
English, and only an abridgement of oat- 
stealer ; a name given to those gentry from 
their great propensity to defraud those use- 
ful quadrupeds, horses, of their fair allow- 

Origin of the late huilding commonly called 
Bedlam, in Moorfields. 

The hospital, termed Bedlam, or Beth- 
iem, for insane persons, originated in the 
disBolved priory of enthusiasts, called Beth- 



lemites, in Moorfields, who wore red stars on 
their breasts, in commemoration of the star 
that directed the Magi to a stable in Bethle- 

No Penny no Paternoster. 

No penny, refers to the Peter's pence, a 
tribute which our ancestors, before the Re^ 
formation, paid lo the pope of Rome ; and, 
as pater noster are the two first words of 
the hordes Prayer^ in Latiuy so they are 
used for the title of the whole ; and, there* 
fore, the meaning of (he expression is, no 
money no prayers* 

Origin and antiquity of Surplices. 

The word surplice comes from sursum^ 
or supara^ and plica, to fold, and signifies a 
garment plaited iu the upper part of the 
neck. We read that the Egyptian priests 
of Isis, had such garments long before the 
Levitical priesthood ; then the Levites ^ore 
them and breeches as transient shadows of 
the priesthood of 3Ielchizedecki which re- 
quires righteousness as a robe, and to be 
made white in the blood of the Lamb-*-4i 
more spiritual worship. Colours andciothei 


are indifferent; gome countries mourn in 
white, and others in different colours. Pope 
Adrian the First got it decreed, in a coun- 
cil held under him, anno 769, at Frankfort, 
that the very sexton should officiate in the 
ehurch with a surplice. 

AtUiqtdh/ of the sayings ^' TJuxfs a Canterbury 


The frequent pilgrimages which in popish 
times were made to Canterbury, gave this 
ancieot saying birth, by reason of the tedi- 
ous stories which were told by pilgrims with 
design to divert each other as they walked 
along, and thereby lessen the fatigue of their 

Origin of the word Cockney. 

Cockney is the distinguishing appellation 
by which those gentlemen are honoured, 
who, being natives of the metropolis, are 
supposed never to have very far exceeded 
the vibrative limits of St. Paul's clock or 
Bow bell. 

A citizen of London making an excursion 
with his son to the neighbourhood of High- 
gate, the lad (who had never before takea a 


journey of such magnitude and extent^) hap- 
pening to bear a horse neigh (which was 
quite new to him) hastily exclaimed, " HoW- 
that horse barks, daddy." — " Barks ! yo» 
booby," replied the father, " neighs ! yoa 
mean. A dog barks, a horse neighs*^' — 
They had not proceeded far, when the 
youth, Gndin^ his ears assailed by the sud- 
den crowing of a cock, was so fascinated 
with the shrill and unexpected sound, that 
he instantly attracted his companion's at- 
tention with, " Hark, daddy, how that cock 
neighs /" — To which happy effusion of fan- 
cy, the citizens of London will probably 
stand indebted for the name of Cockney to 
the end of time. 

Origin cf Evergreens at Christmas. 

Tradition says, that the first Christian 
church in Britain was built of boughs ; and 
that the disciples adopted the plan as more 
likely to attract the notice of the people, 
because the monks built their temples in that 
manner, probably to imitate the temples of 
Saturn, which were always under the oak. 
The great feast of Saturn was held in De- 
cember : and as the oaks were then without 
leaves, the monks obliged the people te 

^ 23 

bring in boughs and sprigs of evergreens : 
— and CbristainSy on the twentj-fifth of the 
same month, did the like, from whence ori- 
ginated the present custom. 

Origin of the sayings when people speak improp' 
erly, '" Thai's a Bull:' 

It became a proverb from the repeated 
blunders of one Obadiak Bully a lawyer of 
London, who lived in the reign of King Hen- 
ry VII. 

The reason of saying Amen at the end of a 
prayer^ and from whence that word is derived. 

The word Amen Is of Hebrew origin, 
primarily importing Verity y whence, a8 an- 
cient writers observe, it passes into a parti- 
cle of depending and assenting ; and there- 
fore, at the end of a petition, signiBesbe it so* 
And this gives us the reason why we are to 
conclude our prayers with so appropriate a 
word, being a summary repetition of the pre- 
ceding prayer. 

Smiffand Tobacco^ when first introduced into 


Snuflf, though long known to foreigners. 


was by no meaDS familiar to the British na- 
tion, until first introduced by Sir Francis 
Drake, and Captain Richard Greenfield in 
1586. Sir Walter Raleigh, in the reign of 
dueen Elizabeth, convinced us, how strange 
the custom appeared to the inhabitants of 
this country, which we record in the follow* 
ing comical story : — 

Sir Walter, in his travels abroad, having 
accustomed himself among the Indians, to 

fmrtake of their favourite weed, was unwil- 
ing to discontinue the use of it on his return 
to England ; and therefore supplied himself 
with several hogsheads, which he placed in 
his own study, and generally used to indulge 
himself by smoaking secretly two or three 
pipes a day ; at which times he ordered 
one of his servants (a simple fellow,) who 
waited at the door, to bring up a tankard of 
old ale and nutmeg, always laying aside the 
pipe when he heard his servant coming. 
One day, while he was earnestly employed 
in reading something which amused him, 
with the pipe in his mouth, the servant en- 
tered ; and, astonished to see his master in 
that situation, (apparently as he thought, on 
fire, for the smoke was ascending in thick 
clouds from his mouth, and the bowl of the 
pipe on fire,) he immediately, without any 
hesitation whatever, threw the ale directly 


in his master's face, and ran down stairs 
with all imaginable speed, and alarmed the 
fi^mily with repeated exclamations that his 
master was on fire in the insidcy and would 
be burned to ashes if they did not immedi- 
sitely go up stairs to his assistance* 

Supposed origin of the word Tyhiim, 

The antiquity of Tyburn is as old as the 
year 1529. Before that time, the place of 
public execution was in Rotten Row, Old 
Street* The etymology of the word Ty- 
burn, some will have it, proceeds from the 
words tye and burn^ in allusion to the old 
method of executing traitors at that place* 
Others think it took its name from a small 
river, or brook, once running near it, and 
called by the Romans TyburnicR. Wheth- 
er the first or the last is the origin from 
whence it derived its name, we know not^ 
but are of opinion it is the former* 

This late place of execution according to 
Pennant, was called in the time of Edward 
the Third, when the gentle Mortimer fin- 
ished his days here, the Elms : but the o- 
riginal, as well as the present name, was Ty- 
bourne : not from tye and burn^ as if it were 
called so from the manner of cql^xX^V'^xxtvx^- 



nents ; but from boumej the Saxon word 
for a^* brooky" and Tye^ the name of thai 
brook ; which, joined, gave name to a man- 
or before the conquest. 

Why the rocks on which Sir Cloudesley Shovel 
mas cast away upon^ are commonly called the 
Bishop and his Clerks. 

A fleet of merchant ships, on their re- 
turn from Spain, about three hundred years 
ago, were shipwrecked on these fatal rocks ; 
among whose miserable numbers none were 
saved but three, viz. Miles Bishop^ and 
James and Henry Clarke who were miracu-; 
louslj preserved on a broken mast. From 
this dreadful misfortune the rocks took the 
name they bear at present, and, will most 
likely continue for ages a memento of that 
melancholy accident. 

Origin of Drinking Healths. 

The drinking of healths, took its rise 
from the tiqae of the Danes being in this 
island ; it was frequently customary with 
them, whilst an Englishman wad drinking, 
to take that opportunity of stabbing him. 
Tbe English upon this, entered into com- 


bination to be mutual pledges of security 
for each other's health and preservation : 
from hence arose the custom of pledging and 
drinking healths. 

Whatever might have been the origin, it 
is a vain and foolish practice ; it would be 
as rational to use the ceremony of wishing 
health with every piece of bread, as glass 
of wine : the absurdity of this, would readily 
be acknowledged by all : and it has a ten- 
dency as practised, to lead to inebriety, 
which appears to have been the opinion of 
that celebrated and piou^ man Sir Matthew 
Hale, who, in company with some students, 
was one day dining and making merry, when, 
from excessive drinkine, a young man of the 
party fell down to all appearance dead, 
which greatly affected all the compa?\y : but 
its effects on Hale were such he went into 
another room, and on bis knees fervently 
besought Ood to restore his friend, and to 
pardon the intemperance of which they had 
Been guilty, promising he would never 
keep company in that free rannner again, 
nor drink even a health for the future. His 
friend was restored, and Hale was enabled 
ever after religiously to keep his promisee. 
Dear youth seriously weigh the matter and 
avoid the snare. 

contrivea to loaKe a Kina oi pape 
ing them in a certain kind of gum 
then drying them in the sun, w 
wards being divided into sheets, % 
Papyri^ from the reed of which 
made ; and of these the famouf 
Philadelphus was originally com] 

Why the first of August is alwa 

The origin of Lammas-day was 

the popish priests began to mal 

that lambs and sheep might not 

season after shearing, from whenc 

ed Lambs-mass-dayy since co 
•*" -~ J — n« ♦kJo A>%tT i 


^" «ftef wards I" ** ^'''^ °f f f-e cro^ '"P" 
f '^"^ i *:; -«r Since ieV^r'''''^ 

S«'-den, or rather a via". 
a, wnb here and (hlrl '^""S® 


since disused : the north side 
ted with trees, and on the othc 
of St. James's Park. 

Origin of Valentine^s . 

Valentine was a pope or bif 

who lived in the ninth centur 


day, established an annual 
poorer clergj, drawing patn 
the commenced year ; and ll 
benefactors were called YaU 
his death he was canonized 1 
his feast day kept on the fou 
February, which was though' 


years standing. The birds too are supposed 
to choose their mates, and pair on this day ; 
which no doubt, is an additional reason to 
our youth of both sexes who are approach- 
ing to maturity, to write their verses, and 
with much ingenuity ply scissars, pen and 
pencil, in honour of their selected or alloted 

Origin of Yew Trees being planted in Church 


Before the invention of gunpowder, and 
use of fire-arms, every parish in England 
was obliged to have yew trees in their 
church yards, the branches of which were 
made into bows for the use of the archers ; 
and to this it is owing that in many of those 
places we find yew trees still growing ; al- 
though the use of shooting with bows has long 
been discontinued in the armies of Europe. 

Origin of Barbers hanging out long poles for 

a sign* 

The barber's art was so beneficial to the 

Eublic, that he who first brought it up in 
Lome had a statue erected to his memory, 
as ancient authors relate ; and in England 
they were in some measure the surgeons in 


old timei and tberefore hung their bagins 
and pole out to make known at a distance to' 
the weary and wounded traveUeff where 
they might apply when in distress ; and the 
pole being generally painted in stripes, was 
emblematical of the fillet or bandage used in 
tying up the wounded parts. 

The barber's pole has been the subject of 
many conjectures, some conceiving tt to 
have originated from the word poll, or head, 
with several other conceits as far-fetched, 
and as unmeaning ; but the true intention of 
that party coloured staff was, to show that 
the master of the shop practised surgery, 
and could bleed a vein as well as mow a 
beard ; such a staff being to this day, by 
every practitioner, put into the hand of a 
patient undergoing the operation of phlebot- 

Origin and antiquity oj Cock-Fighting. 

The origin of cockfighting is said to be 
derived from the Athenians, on the follow- 
ing occasion : 

When Themistocles was marching his ar- 
my against the Persians, he by the way e- 
spying two cocks fighting, caused his army 
to behold them, and made the following 
speech to them : ^'Behold, these do not fight 


r their household gods, for the nbnu- 
ents of their ancestors, nor for glory, nor 
r liberty, nor for the safety of their chil- 
ren ; but only because the one will not 
ve way to the other." This so encoura- 
id the Grecians that they fought strenu- 
isly, and obtained the victory over the 
ersians ; upon which cock-fighting was, by 
fiarticular law, ordained to be annually 
'actised by the Athenians, and has ever 
Qce been practised in most parts of the 
lown world ; however, it is justly esteem- 
1 by sober people, a base and cruel amuse* 
ent, and evinces low breeding and cor- 
pt hearts, that can take pleasure in the 
fferings of these poor birds. 
A few years since, lived at Tottenham, 
)hn Ardesoif Esq. a young man of large 
rtune, and in the splendour of his carriages 
d horses, rivalled by few country gentle- 
in. His table was that of hospitality, 
lere it may be said he sacrificed too much 
conviviality. Mr. Ardesoif was very 
id of cock-fighting, and had a favourite 
ck, upon which he had won manj profita- 
; matches. The last bet he laid upon his 
ck he lost, which so enraged him, that he 
d the bird tied to a spit and roasted alive, 
fore a large fire. The screams of the 
or animal were so affecting, that some 


geDtlemen who were present attempted to 
intefere, which so enraged Mr. Ardesoif, 
that he seized a poker, and with the moat 
furious vehemence declared that be would 
kill the first man that interposed ; but in the 
midst of his passionate assererations, (by the 
bursting of a blood vessel) he fell down dead 
on the spot. Such were the circumstances 
which attended the death of this great pil- 
lar of humanity. 

We find Cowper noticed this awful tragedy 
as follows : — 

lif USE — hide his name of whom I sing, 
liest his surviving house thou bring, 

For his sake into fcorn ; 
Nor speak the school from which he drew 
The much or little that he knew, 

Nor place where he was bom. 

That such a man once was, may seem 
Worthy of record (if the theme 

Perchance may credit win) 
For proof to man, what man may prove, 
If grace depart, and demons move 

The source of guilt within. 

This man (for since the howling wild 
Disclaims him. man he must be stii'd) 

Wanted no good below, 
Gentle he was« if gentle birth 
Could make him such, and he had worth, 

If wealth oan worth bestow. 


In Boeial talk and ready jest 
Hie shone superior at the feast. 

And qnalities of mind, 
Illustrious in the eyes of tho8« 
Whose gay society he chose 

Possessed of every kind. 

Methinksl see him powdered red. 
With buHhy locks his well-dress'd head 

WingM broad on either side, 
The mossy rose-bud not so sweet ; 
His steeds superb, his carriage neat 

As lux'ry could provide. 

Can such be cruel ? — Such can be 
Cruel as hell, and so wa^i he ! 

A tyrant, entertained 
With barbVous sports, whose fell delight 
Was to encourage mortal fight 

'Twixt birds to battle trainM. 

One featherM champion he possessed, 
His daiiing far beyond the rest, 

Which never knew disgrace. 
Nor e'er had fought, but he made flow 
The life-blood of his fiercest foe, 

The Csesar of his race. 

It chancM at last, when on a day, 
He pushM him to the desp'rate fray, 

His courage droop'd, he fled, 
The master stormM, the prize was lost. 
And instant frantic at the cost, 

He doom'd his fav'rite dead. 

He siezM him fast, and from the pit 
Flew to his kitchen, snatch'd the spit. 
And bring me cord, he cried— 


The cord was brongbt, and at his word, 
To that dire implement the bird, 
Alive and struggling tied. 

The horrid sequel aski a veil, 
And all the terrors of the tale 

That can be, shall be, sunk- 
Led by the suflPrer's screams aright, 
His shock'd companions view the sighti 

And him with fury drunk. 

All suppliant, beg a milder fate 
For the old warrior at the grate : 

He, deaf to pity's call, 
Whirl'd round him rapid as a wheel 
His culinary club of ^teel. 

Death menacing on all. 

But veni^eance hung not far remote, 

For while be «tretch*d his clanL'rous throat, 

And heaven and earth defied, 
Bijd: wiih a ciirke too closely pent, 
That strugjiled vainly for a vent. 

He tutterM, reePd, and died. 

'Tis not for us, with rarh surmise. 
To point the judgments of the skies. 

But judgments plain as this. 
That, sent for man's infilruction, bring 
A written label on their wing, 

'Tis hard to read amifs. 

Origin ofSaddUr*s ffells. 

Satldler's Wells, near London, deriyeB 

its name from a Mr. Saddler, who erected a 

masic house near the spot, where was a cer- 


well, much frequented bj the monks of 
rkenwell Priory before the Reformation, 
the many cures ascribed to the waters, 
the Reformation the well was stopped up 
Lccount of the superstitious use made of 
[ 1683. Sadler discovered it ; and af- 
^is decease, one Francis Forcer, a mu- 
m, became proprietor of the wells and 
ic, whose son succeeded him, and here 
exhibited rope-dancing, tumbling, Szc. 

Vegetables first eaten in England. 

egetables were imported from the Neth- 
ids, about the year 1509, there being 
itchen gardens in England. Before this 
sugar was eaten with meat, to correct 

Origin of the title Poet Laureat. 

he title. Poet Laureat, was 6rst invent- 
)y the Caesars of Germany, and has 
i been perpetuated by custom or vanity 
e English court, and conferred at dif 
it times on men of various and unequal 
t. They receive a yearly stipend, 
sire bound to furnish, twice a year, a 
lure of praise in verse, which is sung in 
presence of the sovereign and his court. 


ice in single sneeis so earjy as m 
century, were sold for a gazetta a 
kinds of newspapers were from t 
ed gazette, or gazettes. 

Gazette is derived from the G 
gastty (a treasure,) and the pap 
this name, is by most people co 
treasure of news. 


Origin of the names Whig and 

These names were first used i 
1680. The first was a name o 
given by the court party to their a 
for resembhng the principles of th' 
fanatical conventicles in Scotlanc 


Whigs, from the term " Whiggam,^' which 
they used in driving their horses. In the 
year 1648 the presbyterian ministers inci- 
te''' an insurrection against the court, and 
m 'hed with the people to Edinburgh ^this 
was K. ailed "the Whiggamors* inroad ;" and, 
after this, all that opposed administration in 
Scotland, were called whigs, and from hence 
the term was adopted in England. 

" HohsovCs Chmce^ This or JSTone.^^ 

This saying is derived from one Hobson, 
who formerly let out horses to hire at Cam- 
bridge, and who obliged every person who 
wanted one, to take that next the stable 
door, being the one which had taken the 
most rest, from whence originated the say- 
ing, " Hobson's choice, this or none. 


Origin of Pancakes at Shrovetide. 

This custom originated from the meagre 
food, such as eating eggs, milk, &c. at Shrive, 
which was the general time of confession in 
days of popery. 

Formerly, in the time of popes, on Shrove 
Tuesday, the people in every parish through- 
out England were obliged one by one, to 

oc perhaps sooner, that it might be 
all, and that thej might attend ac 
the customs then in use. And t 
are uow protestants, yet the custo 
ing the great bell in an anciei 
church still continues, and has th 
the pancake-bell ; probably, beet 
the confession it was customary t 
pancakes ov fritters ; and many pc 
now have these articles as part of 
ner ob this day. 

Grog^ derivation of the wm 

This is a sea-term for rum i 
and originated from Admiral Ye 


still remaining, the flatterers of that 
1 highly magnified this action, which 
o Bello like, became a popular subject 
igns ; and the port or harbour of Bou- 
e, called Boulogne Mouth, was accord- 
it up at a noted Inn in Holborn. The 
i of the Inn long out-living the sign and 
i of the conquest, an ignorant painter, 
loyed by a no less ignorant landlord to 
t a new one, represented it by a bull and 
ge gaping human meuth, answering to 
^'ulgar pronunciation of bull and mouth. 

The BuU and Gate. 

he same piece of history as the prece- 
gave being to the Bull and Gate, origin- 
meant for the Boulogne Gate, and rep- 
nted by an embattled gate, or entrance 
a fortified town. 

Tlu Bell Savage Inn, 

he Spectator has explained the sign of 
Bell Savage Inn plausibly enough, in 
nosing it to have been originally the fig- 
>f a beautiful female, found in the woods, 
d in French, la belle sauvage. But 
her reason has been riuc,^ ^'^ix^g^&^^w^ 


Bell aDd a SSavage, or wild man, 
a rebus for her name, rebuses 
in fashion in the sixteenth centui 
the Bolt in Ton is an instance, i 
of Bolton. 

The Three Blue BalU 

The Three Blue Balls pref 
doors and windows of pawn-brot 
bj the vulgar humorously eno 
indicate that it is two to one 
pledged are never redeemed, 
alitj the arms of a set of mei 
Lombardy, who were the first 
Ij lent money on pledges. Th 


Aon completely under the influence of Mor« 
phens ; and we imagine the simile taken 
firom the momentary pause of a peg>top, or 
humming top> when its rotary motion is at 
its height : but no such thing. The word 
top is Italian^ topo in that languii^ge signifies 
a mouse : it is the generick nami^, and ap- 

Slied indiscriminately to the common mouse, 
eld mouse, and dormouse : from which the 
Italian proverb, Ei dorme come un topo is 
derived — Anglice^ He sleeps like a top. — 
GetdlemaiiCs Mag. vol 63, p. 893. 


When things are in confusion, they are 
said to be turned topsy-turvy : the expres- 
sion is derived from the way in which turf 
for fuel is placed to dry on its being cut ; 
the surface of the ground is pared off with 
the heath growing on it, and the heath is 
turned downward, and left some days in that 
state, that the earth may get dry before it 
IS carried away. It means then, top-side- 
lurf-way. — Qeni* Mag. vol. 53, p. 928. 

This word is a cortw^Woxi ^l^\.* ksAxs:^ 


and origioated in those times, when thejr 
tricked and bedecked the shrines and aitaiv'^ 
of the saints with finery. The votaries oP 
St. Audrey (an isle of Ely saint) exceeding'* 
all the rest, in the dress and equipage of { 
her altar, it grew into a bye-word upon any *■ 
thing that was very gaudy, that it W€iS all ' 
tawdry ; as much as to say, all St^ Audrey. 


Puritan^ or Puritanical Fellow. 

Puritans are a sect that dissent from the 
church of England. They made their first 
appearance in Queen Elizabeth's time ; and 
on account of their extraordinary sancity 
which they introduced into religious wor- 
ship, they were reproached with the name 
of puritans, which term to this day is ap- 
plied to any hypocritical character, whom, 
by way of derision, we call a puritan, or pn< 
ritanical fellow. 

Thieves^ Vinegar, 

During the great plague in London, in the 
year 1666, four thieves availing themselves 
of the public calamity, took that opportuni- 
ty to plunder the houses of the dead and 
frying, yet, not withstanding, escaped the 


ion themBelves. On its being inquired 
bey thus insured their own safety, it 
und that they constantly carried about 
sponges of prepared vinegar; which 
*ation future apothecaries adopted in 
ectious cases, and sold under the de« 
ition of Thieves^ Vinegar. 


i*lemish painter, called Gluck, having 
)sse8sion of the secret for dyeing a 
ful scarlet, communicated it to one 
Sobelin, who established a manufac- 
r it in the place in Franee which still 
his name. This undertaking was 
d so rash, that it was termed Oobe- 
blly : but his astonishing success at 

induced people to suppose, that he 
ade a compact with the devil, from 
the application of the term goblins to 
)irits, is probably derived. — Nichol- 

! building in which tapestry is now 
is still distinguished by his name, and 

the Gobelins. People at that time 
o ignorant in matters of this kind, that 
ould not believe Gobelin performed 
he did, without supernatural assist- 

^... vt u^eing scarlet ; and 

ed it, he gained by it a great d( 
When the term of the compa 
was nearly terminated, as Gobe 
ing through the court-yard wii 
his hand, the devil came to fete 
Gobelin begged for a respite, 
Bpirit would not grant it. Got 
requested that he would wait ti 
candle in his hand was burnt oul 
ing granted, Gobelin immediate 
into a well, and threw the devi 
The devil thus outwitted, was e: 
angry ; but Gobelin had time to 
of ecclesiastics, who secured hir 
lar attacks in future. — Philosoj. 


Our favourite poet Milton omits no op- 
rtunitj of introducing this lovelj bird. 
>w finely does it serve to compose the sol- 
n scenery of his Penseroso ! 

** In her saddest, sweetest plight, 
Smoothing the rugged brow of night, 
While Cynthia checks the dragon yoke 
Gently o'er the accustomM oak. 
Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly, 
Most musical, most melancholy ! 
Thee chauntress, oft the woods among, 
I woo to hear thy evening song." 

another place he styles it the solemn bird ; 
d he says again : 

*^ As the wakeful bird 
Sings darkling, and, in shadiest covert hid, 
Tunes her nocturnal note." 

igin of Rosemary^ Cypress^ and Yew^ being 
distributed at Funerals, &c. 

In ancient times, it was customary for 
ose who attended funerals to bear a sprig 
rosemary in their hands^ being considered 
I aromatic herb, and a preservative against 
istilential diseases : from whence the smel- 
ig thereto at funerals was probably thought 
defence against the morbid ef9uvia arising 
om dead bodies : it was likewise usual to 
jrn rosemary in the chambers of the sick* 
The ancients also made use of the ^^^k 

The origin of May-Poks an 

It was a custom among tb 
CDS) before converted to C 
erect May-poles, adorned \ 
honour of the goddess Flora 
cing of milk-maids on the fii 
fore garlands, ornamented \ 
only a corruption of the anc 
compliance with other rusti 

The leisure days after seei 
chosen by our Saxon ance 
motes, or conventions of the 
till after the Norman Conqu 


^ cation, enjoyed a kind of saturnalia, 
le vassals met upon the common green, 
lund the May-pole, where they elected a 
!age lord, or king, as he was called, who 
>se his queen. He wore an oaken, and 
I a hawthorn wreath, and together they 
'e laws to the rustic sports during these 
set days of freedom. The May-pole, 
n, was the English tree of liberty ! Are 
re many yet standing ^ 

Vhya Foolish Fellow is called a Coxcomb. 

This is a corruption of the word coclcs* 
lb, which is considered as an unnecessary 
t, and is always cut off from game cocks, 
only suffered to grow on those of the 
ig-hill breed : hence we make use of the 
n cocks-comb or coxcootb, to a ridiculous 
bling fellow, who pays more attention to 
decoration of his person than to the im- 
vement of his mind. 

Economy^ or CEconomy. 

Economy is derived from the Greek 
ds oikoSy a house, and nomoSy law or or- 
in the management of a family and do- 
tic affairs. It is sometimes used in a 



Candlemas-day, is derived 
candle and mass : on this 
February) the feast of the p 
blessed Virgin was formerly 
many lights in churches, 
going in procession on Candl 
lighted candles in the hand, 
originated with the Romans 
Rome with torches and ca 
worship of Februay the r 
This was afterwards^ by po 
Terted into the worship of o 
Son the Lord Jesus Christ 

^f^talntr aKiinHsinr.e of liehts. 

to pass great part of tbe nights which pre- 
cede certain holidays in religious exercises ; 
and these exercises, from being performed 
in the night, were called vigil(Zj vigils, or 

News — Origin of the Word* 

The four cardinal points of the compass, 
marked with the letters N. E. W. S. stand- 
ing for North, East, West, South, forms the 
word News, which, coming from all parts of 
the world, gave derivation to the word. 

Sdah — Reason mhy thai word is put at the end 
of several Verses in the Psalms. 

Selahy is a musical note, and according to 
ancient translators of holy writ, implies an 
elevation of the voice, as though it were ir- 
regularly derived from Salaly to elevate ; or 
it signifies a common pause. 

Bards^ Derivation of the Word, and why Poets 

are so called* 

This word is derived from hardSy the 
Boat ancient order/and very reasonably be 


lieved a religiona order) of persons among 
the old Britons* The^ were before the 
druidSf though afterwards eclipsed by them 
in point of authority and reputation. Thef 
are taken notice of by several ancient au- 
thors, as Sirabo^ HesychiuSy See. They are 
wont to sing the praises, in words set to mu- 
sic, of eminent and renowned persons: 
whence they are called by those authorsi 
poets, songsters, composers of verses, and 
the like. They were employed in the opo-' 
theosisy or deification of distinguished he- 
roes. They received their mode of singing 
from the Phoenicians, who were the first, 
that, by the necessity of their affairs, and 
their extraordinary skill in navigation, under 
their great leader Hercules, {not the Grecian 
Hercules^ but son to the king of Tyre^ 
traded with the inhabitants of Great Brit- 
ain, but more especially with the more south- 
ern part of it, where there are still several 
remarkable relics of Phoenician antiquity. 

Rome was not huiU in a Day, 

This saying originated from the gradual 
advances of Rome, from an obscure original, 
to be the mistress of the universe, (which it 
was at one time) setting forth, that by patient 


severance, and elaborate application to 
lustry, the greatest blessings might beob- 

Faradise^^Etymology of the Word. 

Paradise is a Persian word, and means a 
*den, or orchard ; but from the delicious 
lasantness of such places, it is metaphori- 
I7 used to signify an invisible place of 
ppiness. ^ 

England^ when and by whom named, 

'Egbert^ (son of Alemond) one of the kings 
the Saxon heptarchy, and eighteenth king 
the West Saxons, by his warlike achieve- 
mts (for he was one of the famous heroes 
the age) conquered the other six kings, 
d reduced their dominions under his obe- 
snce. Whereupon, in the year 819, he 
16 crowned at Winchester sole monarch of 
^ulh Britain^ under the new title of Eng- 
id, which he established by royal procla- 
ition, as derived from his ancestors the 
igles, who assisted the Saxons in the con* 
est of this country* 

5 * 

ny years back, a plot was laid to 
his lifC) when an unknown perso 
put a pair of spurs in his hand, 
quis immediately understood the 
the present, and fled ; and from t) 
the family took a spur for the 

which they added a wing as a m 

Recluse — Origin of the wo 

Agnes Rochier, a beautiful gi 
daughter of a merchant, who hac 
great fortune* At the as^e of ei] 
became a recluse^ in the parish of 

<• ^^ 


room with holy water, put his seal on the 
door. The onlj aperture was a small win* 
dow, through which the recluse heard divine 
service, and received her necessaries. Ag- 
nes lived ninety-nine years. 

Pilgrimage — Original meaning of. 

The form of consecrating a person for a 
pilgrimage, in what are called the middle 
ages, was as follows : — The pilgrim elect, 
after confession, lay prostrate at the altar, 
while an appropriate mass was performed. 
After this he arose, and the priest consecra- 
ted his scrip and staff. The former of these 
he next sprinkled with holy water, and hung 
around the pilgrim's neck, accompanying the 
ceremony with certain prayers : the like was 
also done with his staff. The whole conclu- 
ded with the mass At iter agenlibus. To 
pilgrims going to the Holy Land, a garment 
was delivered marked with a cross : both 
cross and garment having been previously 

Anecdote — meaning of the word. 

This word was originally given by the 
fireeks to every thing, of wh^Lt^N^ti \ffl^sa^^ 


that was made known to the people for fh^ 
first time. In its literary acceptation, it si^^. 
nifies historical details of such events 

have taken place in the courts of sovereigniSy . 
and which it was never intended should btf" / 

At present, the word is commonly appli- 
ed to any detached account of celebrated 
sayings, or remarkable actions, which are 
either in general histories, or made to sup-. 
ply the place of a regular narrative. 

The Devil and Dr. Faustus. 

Fust, or Faustus, was a citizen of Mentzy 
and one of the earliest printers. He had 
the policy to conceal his art ; and to this 
policy we are indebted for the tradition of 
« The Devil and Dr. Faustus," handed 
down to the present times. Faustus, in 
partnership with Peter Schoeflfer, in the year 
1462, printed off a considerable number of 
copies of the Bible, to imilate those which 
were commonly sold in manuscript. Fust 
imdertook the sale of them at Paris, where 
the art of printing was then unknown. At 
first he sold his copies for so high a sum as 
five or six hundred crowns, the prices usual- 
ly demanded by the scribes. He afterwards 
lowered his price to sixty crowns, which 


created universal aBtoniBhrnent : but when 
he produced copies as fast as they were 
wanted, and lowered the price to thirty 
crowns, all Paris was agitated.^ The uni- 
formity of the copies increased the wonder ; 
informations were given to the police against 
him as a magician ; his lodgings were search- 
ed, and a great number of copies being found, 
they were seized : the red ink, with which 
they were embellished, was said to be his 
blood : it was seriously adjudged that he 
was in league with the devil ; and if he had 
not fled, most probably he would have shar- 
ed the fate of those, whom ignorant and su- 
Erstitious judges condemned in those days 
* witchcraft. 

Hungary Waier, nhy so called. 

Hungary Water is a distilled water pre- 
pared from the tops of flowers of rosemary : 
BO denominated from a Queen of Hunga- 
ryi for whose use it was first made. 


Hurly-burly, in vulgar language, denotes 
coafusion or tumult, and is said to owe its 
origin to two neighbouring famvlv^^^ Hu*t* 

Lotd^ migin of the 

Lord is a title of honou, 
ivho are noble either by bii 
In this sense, it amounts to 
as peer of the realm, or lord 
The title is by courtesy also 
sons of dukes and marquises, 
est sons of earls : and it ii 
honour bestowed on those wh 
ble by their employment, as {( 
lord chamberlainy or lord ch 
The word is Saxon, but abbrev 
syllables into one ; for it was < 
fordf which, by dropping the j 
came laford^ and afterwards, 
ion, lord. " The Pt«»«— ' 


Lcidy^ derivation €f the title. 

The title of ladj is derived from two Sax- 
on words, which signify loaf-day^ which 
words have, in time, been contracted into 
the present appellation. It properly belongs 
only to the daughters of earls, and all 
of higher rank : but custom has made it a 
word of complaisance for the wives of 
knights and for all eminent women. 

As to the original application of this ex- 
pression, it maj be observed, that heretofore 
it was the fashion of those families whom 
God had blessed with aflluence, to live con- 
stantly at their mansion-houses in the coun- 
try, and that once a week, or oftener, the 
lady of the manor distributed to her poor 
neighbours, with her own hands^ a certain 
quantity of bread : but the practice which 
gave rise to this title, is now as little known 
a> the meaning of it : however, it may be 
from that hospitable custom, that to this day, 
the ladies, in this kingdom alone, serve the 
meat at their own table. 

Late Wake — meaning of the term. 

Late Wake is a ceremony used at funer- 
als in the Highlands of Scotland. The eve- 
ning after the death of any person, the rela- 
tions and friends of the deceased meet ^tvk^ 


house, attended by bagpipe or fiddle ; the 
nearest of kin, be it wife, son, or daughters 
opeBS a melancholy ball, dancing, and great 
ingj (i. e. crying violently,) at the same timQi 
and this continues till daylight. If the corpse 
remain unburied for two nights, the same 
rites are renewed. Thus, Scythian like^ 
they rejoice at the deliverence of their 
friends out of this life of misery. 

Curfew Bell^ why so called^ 

The curfew bell, called in the low Latin 
of the middle ages ignitegium or periiegi' 
wm, and in French, ciirreferv — was a signal 
for all persons to extinguish their fires at a 
certain hour. In those ages people made 
fires in their houses in a hole or pit in the 
centre of the floor, under an opening formed 
in the roof, like the American Indian's wig* 
warn; and when the fire was burnt out, or the 
family went to bed, the hole was shut by a 
cover of wood or earth. This practice still 
prevails among the cottagers in some parts of 
Scotland, and we doubt not of other coun- 
tries. In the dark ages, when all ranks of 
people were turbulent, a law was almost eve- 
ry where established, that the fire should be 
extinguished at a certain time in the evening; 
/Iiat the cover should be put over the fire- 


jlace ; and that all the family should retire 
:0 rest, or at least keep within doors. The 
!me when this ought t^o be done, was signi- 
led bj the ringing of a bell, called therefore 
in curfew bell^ or ignitegium. It was the 
nw of William the Conqueror, which intro- 
luced this practice first into England, and 
raa abolished by Henry the First, in 1100. 
The ringing of the curfew bell gave rise 
o the prayer bell, as it is called, which is 
ktill retained in some protestant countries. 
Pope John the twenty-third, with a view to 
ivert certain apprehended misfortunes, 
rhich rendered his life uncomfortable, gave 
orders, that every person, on hearing the 
gnitegiumj should repeat the Ave Maria 
faree times. When the appearance of a com- 
^f, and a dread of Turks, alarmed all Christ- 
«dom. Pope Calixtus the Third increased 
hese periodical times of prayer, by order- 
ng the prayer bell to be rung also at noon. 

Whitsunday^ why so called. 

Whitsunday is a solemn festival of the 
)hristian church, observed on the fiftieth 
lay after Easter, in memory of the descent 
f the Holy Ghost upon the apostles, in the 
tsible appearance of fiery clo^^vji \sswq^rs^^ 


ware Daptisea pui on wniie ga 
tjpes of that spiritual puritj the; 
in baptism. As the descent of 
Ghost upon the apostles happenet 
day which the Jews called Pert! 
festival retained the name ofP< 
mong the Christians. 

Chapelj derivation of tJu rvo 

A place of divme worship calle 
is derived from the Latin capellc 
mer times, when the kings of Fr 
engaged in war, they always i 
Martin's hat in the field, which n 
a tent as a precious relic : from i 


kers. The word is formed from the French 
CordonnieTy a kind of leather brought from 
Cordova, whereof they formerly made the 
upper leather of their shoes. Others derive 
it from CordCi rope^ because, anciently, 
shoes were made of cord ; as they are still 
in some parts of Spain, under the name of 

Ave Maria, 

Ave Maria, or Hail Mary, signifies the 
angel Gabriel's salutation of the Virgin Ma- 
ry, when he brought her the tidings of the 
incarnation* It is become a prayer, or form 
of devotion in the Romish church. Their 
chaplets and rosaries are divided into so 
many Ave Marias, and so many pater nost- 
ers, to which the papists ascribe wonderful 

Jubilee^ origin of. 

The Jubilee was originally a time of pub- 
lic and solemn festivity among the ancient 
Hebrews. This was kept every fiftieth year; 
it began about the autumnal equinox, and 
was proclaimed by[soGnd of trumpet through- 
out all the country. Atthi^^ Wme ^\\ ^v^^'^^ 

turewaaiorDiuueiij uuu luo^wra ««. 
efit of the harvest, vintage, and 
ductions of the earth, id the same 
the sabbatical or seventh year. A 
designed to pot the Israelites in m 
Egyptian servitude, and to pre 
imposing the like upon their bretl 
not observed by the Gentile ] 
The Christians, in imitation of 
have likewise established Juhil 
began in the time of Pope Be 
Eighth, in the year 1300, and are 
tiaed every twenty -five years ; bi 
late only to the pretended forg 
sins, and the indulgences grant 
church of Rome, together with th 
**r •«A»r^»rv»:irtw o tlirkusanrl frolics i' 


iriU go iDto theosi and I will praise the Lord." 
Psalm, cxviii. 19. Upon which the masons 
Call to work, and break downJhe wall that 
atopa up the gate : which done, the Pope 
kneels down before it, and the penitentiaries 
qprinkle him with holy water. Then, taking 
op the cross, he begins to sing Te Detim, 
and enters the church, followed bj the cler- 
gy. In the mean time, three cardinal le- 
gates are sent to open the other three holy 
gates, which are in the churches of St. John 
of Lateran, St. Paul, and St. Mary the 
Greater. When the holy year is expired, 
the holy gates are shut in this manner : The 
Pope after he has blessed the stones and 
mortar, lays the first stone, and leaves there 
twelve boxes of gold and silver medals : af- 
ter which, the holy gates are walled up as 
before, and continue so till the next Jubi- 

Jubilees are now become more frequent, 
and the Pope grants them as often as the 
church, or himself, have occasion for them. 
There is usually one at the inauguration of 
the new Pope. 

To be entitled to the privileges of the Ju- 
bUee^ the bull enjoins fasting, alms, and 
prayers. It gives the priests full power to 
absolve, in all cases, even those otherwise 
reserved to the Pope, to make commutations 



of yow8, &c. in which it difiers from a plm* 
ary indulgence. During the time of Jtibt7c6i 
all other indulgences are suspended. Ooei 
of our kings, viz. Edward the Third, caused^ 
his birth-day to be observed in manner tt* 
Jubilee^ when he became fifty years of age^ 
in 1362, but never before or after.^ Tfait 
he did, by releasing prisoners, pardoning all 
offences, except treason, making good laws, 
and granting many privileges to the people. 

The first English Lotteries. 

The first English Lottery, we find men* 
tioned in history, was drawn A. D. 1569. It 
consisted of 40,000 lots, at ten shillings each 
lot : the prizes were plate, and the profits 
were to go towards repairing the havens of 
this kingdom. It was drawn at the west 
door of St. Paul's Cathedral. The draw* 
ing began on the 11th of January, 1569, and 
continued incessantly drawing, day and 
nighty till the 6th of May following: as Mait- 
land from Stowe, informs us in his history,, 
vol. i. p. 257. There were then only three 

* Since writins: the above, a Jubilee has been cele- 
brated in this country on the 25th of October, 1809, to 
commemorate the fiftieth year of the reign of our present 
govereiga (George III. now deceased, 1820 ) 


lottery offices in London. The proposals 
for this lottery were published in the years 
1567 and 1568. It was at first intended to 
llfiye been drawn at the house of Mr. Der- 
icke, her majesty's servant, (i. e. her jewel- 
ler) but was afterwards drawn as above men- 
tioned. Dr. RawlinsoD shewed the Anti- 
qaarian Society, in 1748, ^< A proposal for 
a very rich lottery, general, without any 
blanks, containing a great number of good 
prizes, as well of ready money, as of plate, 
and certain sorts of merchandises, hailing 
been valued and prized by the command- 
ment of the Queene's most excellent majes- 
ties order, to the intent, that such commodi- 
ties as may chance to arise thereof, after the 
charges borne, may be converted towards 
the reparations of the havens and strength 
of the realme, and towards such other 
public good works. The number of lotts 
Bhall befoure hundred thousand, and no 
more : and every lott shall be the sum 
of tenne shillings sterling, and no more. To 
be filled by the feast of St. Bartholomew. 
The shew of prises are to be seen in Cheap- 
side, at the sign of the Queene's arms, the 
bouse of Mr. Dericke, goldsmith, servant to 
the dueene. Some other orders about it in 
1597-8. Printed by Henry By nneman. 

<' In the year 1612, King James, in spe- 
cial favour^ for the present ]^Uiil^\\otk%^l^\s^- 


glish colonies in Virginia ; granted a lotteryi 
to be held at the west end of St. Paul's ; 
whereof, one Thomas Sharplj, a taylor of 
London, had the chief prize, which waS' 
4,000 crowns in fair plate. 


Sabbath, or the day of rest, a solemn fes- 
tival of the Jews, on the seventh day of the 
week, or Saturday, beginning from sun-set 
on Friday, to sun-set on Saturday. On this 
day, the Jews were commanded to abstain 
from all labour, and to give rest to their cat- 
tle. They were not allowed to go out of 
their city farther than two thousand cubits, 
or a mile ; a custom, which was founded on 
the distance of the ark from the tents of the 
Israelites in the wilderness, after their leav- 
ing Egypt ; for being permitted to go, even 
on the Sabbath day, to the tabernacle to 
pray, they from thence inferred, that the 
taking a journey of no greater length, though 
on a different account, could not be a breach 
of the Sabbatical rest. As the seventh day 
was a day of rest to the people, so was the 
seventh year to the land : it being unlawful 
in this year to plough or sow, and whatever 
the earth produced, belonged to the poor ; 
this was called the sabbatical yenr. The 
Jewe, therefore, were obW^^iA, dwxvo.^ Ihe 


is years, and more especially the last, to 
Lj up a sufficient store for the sabbatical 
ear. The modern, as well as the ancient 
ews, are very superstitious in the obser- 
ance of the Sabbath : they carry neither 
rms, nor gold, nor silver, about them, and 
re permitted neither to touch these, nor a 
andle, nor any thing belonging to fire : on 
hich account, they light up lamps on Fri- 
ay, which burn till the end of the Sabbath. 
The Christians also apply the word Sab- 
ath, by extension, to the first day of the 
eek, popularly called Sunday, or the Lord's 
^ay ; supposed by some to be instituted by 
le apostles, to take place of the Jewish 
abbath, and now observed in remembrance, 
3t of the creation, but of the work of re- 
emption, being completed by our Saviour's 
»8urrection on that day. Those who dis- 
ute the divine appointment of a Christ* 
n Sabbath, allow the moral necessity 
lereof, as a wise designation of time, for the 
icruiting of our bodies, and at the same 
Die keeping up a sense of the great bene- 
ts we have received from God, and a spirit- 
il temper of mind. By allowing six days 
I labour, the poor man has time to earn his 
read, and the man of business has time to 
sspatch his affairs. Had more time been 
lotted to labour and business, and noae to 

-— ' «^ %■ «< 

ruvu aa injunction, wo 
have spared their own bodies, 
those of their servants, slaves, cai 


Sunday, the first day af the ' 
thus called by our idolatrous anc 
cause set apart for worship of th< 
is by some called the hordes I 
Dominicay because kept as a feas 
cry of our Lord's resurrection on 
But every day is the Lord's, and 
to serve him faithfully every day. 

It was the warrior Constantino 


Barbers^ crigin of* 

rbers formerly made a trade of shaving 
rimming the beards of other men for 
J : and in ancient days, a lute, or viol, 
ne such musical instrument, was part 
i furniture of a barber's shop, which 
ised then to be frequented by persons 
s the ordinary level of the people who 
ted to the barber, either for the cure of 
ds, or to undergo some chirurgical ope- 
I, or, as it was theu called, to be trim- 
a word that signified either shaving or 
ig and curling the hair : these, together 
letting blood, were the ancient occupa- 
of the barber surgeon. As to the other 
*tant branch of surgery, the setting of 
ired limbs, that was practised by anoth- 
iss of men called bone-setterSy of whom 
are hardly any now remaining. The 
:al instruments in his shop were for the 
tainment of waiting customers, and an- 
id the end of a newspaper ; with which, 
s day, those who wait for their turn at 
arber's amuse themselves. 

Vable Forkf when first used in this couri' 


le table-fork, an instrument now so in. 
nsible, did not come into u«e va ¥kw<;^ 

a thing, that might have beec 
fore ia discourse of the firstit 
observed a custom, in all f ho! 
and townes through the whic) 
is not used in any other cou 
in my travels, neither do I t 
other nation of Christendoi 
but only Italy. The Italian 
strangers, that are in Italy, 
their meals use a little forke, 
their meate; for, while withth 
they hold in one hand, thej 
out of the dish, they fasten t 
they hold in the other hand, 
dish: so that, whatsoever he 
in the company of any other 


part being made of jron, Steele, and some of 
flilver, but those are used onlj by gentlemen. 
The reason of this^ their curiosity is, be« 
cause the Italian cannot by any means en- 
dare to have his dish touched with fingers, 
teeing all men's fingers are not^like cleane. 
Here upon, I myself thoughj^good to imi- 
tate the Italian fashion, by {his forked cut. 
ting of meate, not only while I was in Italy, 
but al&o in Germany, and oftentimes in Eng- 
land since I came home : being once quipped 
for that frequently using my forke, by a 
certain learned g-^ntleman, a familiar friend 
of mine, Lawrence Whitaker, who, in his 
merry humour, doubted not to call me a/ter- 
cifeTj only for using a forke at feeding, but 
for no other cause.'' 

Hackney Coaches^ why so caUed^ and when first 
introduced in this country. 

It was from the village of Hackney, that 
the coaches let to the people in London, first 
received this name ; for, in the sixteenth 
century, manypeople, having gone on visits 
to see their friends at Hackney, it occasion- 
ed them often to hire horses or carriages, so 
that in time it became a common name for 



such horses, coaches, and chairs, as were let 
to the people of London ; and the name has 
now diffused itself not only throughout Brit- 
ain, but likewise Ireland and America. It 
is generally shortened to the word Hack* 

Haekney coaches first began to ply in the 
streets of London, or rather waited at inns, 
in the year 1625, and were only twenty in 
number ; but in 1635, they were so much 
increased, that King Charles issued out an 
order of council for restraining them. In 
1637, he allowed fifty Hackney coachmen, 
each of whom kept twelve horses. In 1652, 
their number was limited to two hundred ; 
and in 1654, it was extended to three hun- 
dred. In 1661, four hundred were licensed 
at five pounds annually for each. In 1694, 
seven hundred were allowed, and taxed by 
the 5lh and 6th of William and Mary at 
four pounds per annum each. By 9th Anne^ 
c. 23, eight hundred coaches were allowed 
in London and Westminster ; but by 8th 
Geo. III. c. 24, the number was increased to 
one thousand, which are to be licensed by 
commissioners, and to pay a duty of five 
shillings per week to (he king. On Sunday 
there were formerly only one hundred and 
seventy-five Hackney coaches to ply, which 



which were to be appointed bj commission- 
ers ; but their number is now unlimited. 

The antiquity of Liquid Measures. 

The Romans sold oil, wine, yinegar, hon- 
ey, and all kinds of liquids by measure, in a 
certain horn, capable of holding one, two, or 
three pounds. This horn was marked on 
the outside, with a circle drawn about it, 
which line denoted a pound. In the middle 
they marked ounces of measure, but not of 
weight. They measured liquids, but did 
not weigh them by pounds or ounces, as is 
proTed by Oalen, who tells us, in his first 
book of composition of medicines, that it 
was a thing very usual in the city of Rome. 
And Horace observes, — 

" From horn of two poun«1s weight, he, drop by drop 
Dntiird upon the colewort sattels top, 
With his own hand, but he would never spare 
T« dowse it o'er with his dead vinegar." 

Distilling, first discovered. 
The art of distilling was CowwJl o>\\. ^^t^cv 

upon the table before bim, aod 
denly sent for to visit a patient, 1 
at his departure, his dish with ai 
found it at his return bedewed wil 
Observing, from this circumstan< 
extraction of humidity was ve 
bent his study so far that way, as 
ing to the art of distillation. 

Other ancient writers will hav< 
tion to be much older, in conseq 
little chest being found in the At 
dear Padua, wherein the element 
imus Olybius, were devoted as i 
Pluto» The following is a transi 
verses inscribed upon it : — 


• The urns were inscribed with the 
wing lines : 

begone, ye thievei , wky stand ye here to pry, 
part from hence, with your god Mercury : 
iroted to great Pluto, in this pitcher 
<f here a gift, the world scarce knows a richer." 

Skooter^s MiU^ why S0 eatted, 

looter's Hill is so called, either because 
thieves from the adjoining woods have 
at travellers and plundered them ; or, 

probably, because the archers fre- 

ted this spot to exercise themselves in 

favourite diversion. It is a well-known 

that King Henry the Eighth, and his 

3n Catharine^ came hither from Oreen- 

on May-day, and were received by 

lundred archers, clad in green, one of 

personating Robin Hood, as their cap- 

and all of them showing his majesty 

of activity. 

Baskets^ antiquity of ^ 

e ancient Britons wete iv"cAft^^ox S^€«. 

1 * 


ingenuitj in making baskets, which they ex- 
ported in large quantities. These baskets 
were of very elegant workmanship, and bote 
a high price, and mentioned by Juvenal a- 
mong the extravagant, expensive furniture 
of the Roman tables in his time : Addo e^ 
busQandes et mille escaria. 

<' Add baskets, and a thousand other 

That these baskets were manufactured in 
Britain, we learn from the following epigram 
of Martial : 

** A basket I, by painted Britons wrought. 
And now to Rome's imperial city brought." 

The origin of Duelling, 

The word duel signiGes a single combat, 
at a time and place appointed in consequence 
of a challenge. This custom came originally 
from the northern nations, among whom il 
was usual to decide all controversies by 
arms. Both the accuser and accused 
gave pledges to the judges on their respect- 
ive behalf, and the custom prevailed so far a- 
mongst the Germans, Danes, and Franks, thai 
none were excused from it but women, sick 
people, cripples, and ^ucJa. %a ^^t^ ^\A«^ 
21 years of age, or above ^0. TgiNtii^^ev^ 


astica, priests, and monks, were obliged to 
find champions to fight in their stead. The 
punishment of the vanquished was either 
death by hanging, or beheading, or mutiia- 
tien of members, according to the circum- 
stances of the case. Duels were first ad- 
mitted, not only on criminal occasions, but 
on some civil ones, for the maintenance of 
rights to estates and the like. In latter 
times, however, before they were entirely 
abolished,* they were restrained to these four 
cases : Istly, that the crime should be capi- 
tal ; 2diy, that it should be certain the crime 
was perpetrated ; 3d]y, the accused must 
by common fame be supposed guilty ; — and, 
4thly, the matter not capable of proof by 

Duels at present are used for single com- 
bat on some private quarrel, and must be pre- 
meditated, otherwise it is called a rencoun- 
ter. If a person is killed in a duel, both 
the principals and seconds are guilty, 
whether the seconds engage or not. It is 
also a very high offence to challenge a per- 
son either by word or letter, or to be the 
messenger of a challenge. 

The general practice of duelling took its 
rise in the year 1527, at the breaking up of 
a treaty between the emperor Charles the 
Fifth and Francis the Fvt^l. T:\ve; V;«\s5«^ 


desired Francis' herald to acquaint his sot 
ereign, that he would henceforth conside 
him, not only as a base violator of publi( 
faith, but as a stranger to the honour and in 
tegritj becoming a gentleman. Francis, to4 
high-spirited to bear such an imputation, hat 
recourse to an uncommon expedient to Tin 
dicate his character. He instantly sent bad 
the herald with a cartel of defiance, inwhicl 
he gave the Emperor the lie in form, chal- 
lenged him to single combat, requiring hioi 
to name the time and place of the encoun* 
ter, and the weapons with which he chose 
to fight. Charles, as he was not inferior tc 
his rival in spirit or bravery, readily accept- 
ed the challenge ; but, after several messa- 
ges concerning the arrangement of all the 
circumstances relative to the combat, accom- 
panied with mutual reproaches bordering on 
the most indecent scurrility, all thoughts of 
this duel, more becoming the heroes of ro- 
mance than the two greatest monarchs of 
their age, were entirely laid aside. 

The example of two personages so illustri- 
ous, drew such general attention, and carried 
with it so much authority, that it had con- 
siderable influence in introducing an impor- 
tant change in manners over all Europe. 
Dueh, as has already been observed, had 
been long permitted by the \«l\»% ot Ae Eu- 



ropean Bations ; and, forming a part of their 
jurisprndence, were authorized by the mag- 
istrates on many occasions, as the most prop- 
er method of terminating questions with re- 
gard to property, or of deciding in those 
which regarded crimes. But single combats 
being considered as solemn appeals to the 
omniscience and justice of the Supreme Be- 
ing, they were allowed only in public cases» 
according to the prescription of law, and 
carried on in a judicial form. Men, accus- 
tomed to this manner of decision in courts of 
justice, were naturally led to apply it to per- 
sona! and private quarrels. Duels, which 
at first could be appointed by the civil 
judge alone, were fought without the inter- 
position of his authority, and in cases to 
which the laws did not extend. The trans- 
action between Charles and Francis strong- 
ly countenanced this practice. Upon every 
affront or injury which seemed to touch his 
honour, a gentleman thought himself entitled 
ta draw his sword, and to call on his adver- 
sary to make reparation. Such an opinion 
introduced among men of fierce courage, of 
hi^h spirit, and of rude manners,^ where of- 

* What's honour, did your lordship say ? 
My lord T humbly crave a day— - 
'Tis difficult, and in my mind, 
Lik« sabstance cannot be dafin'd. 


' call the best bl 

i-Mt in the hZ.,- ' ""nonr' 
Should be thT»"/^j ■'"• P'* 


im was shed ; many useful lires were logt ; 
in our own time, America has lost a 
amiltoDy a Decatur, &c. and at some pe- 
>ds9 war itself hath hardlj been more de- 
ructive than these contests of honour. So 
^werful, however, is the dominion of fash- 
9, that neither the terrors of penal laws. 

Need I recount how each bravado, 

Shone in montant and passado ? 

To what a height their ire they carri*d, 

How oft they thrusted and they parry'd ? 

But as these champions kept dispensing. 

Finesses in the art of fencing, 

A furious Vulture took upon her, 

Ctuick to decide this point of honour. 

And lawyer-like, to make an end on't^ 

Devoured both plaintiff and defendant ; 

Thus often in our favourite nation, 

(I speak by way of application,) 

A lie direct to some hot youth, 

The giving which perhaps was truth, 

The treading on a high one's toe, 

Or dealing impudence a blow. 

Disputes an politics and law. 

About a feather or a straw ; 

A thousand trifles not worth naming, 

In courting, jockeying, and gaming. 

May cause a challenge's indicting, 

And set two foolish men a fighting ; 

Meanwhile the father of despair. 

The prince of vanity and air, 

His quary, like a hawk discov'ring, 

O'er their devoted heads hangs hov'ring;, 

Secure to get in bis tuition,. 

These volunteers for black perdition. 

XAifl Wicked and savage pract 
appeal to arms, not to prove the ji 
eausei but to obtain revenge for 
supposed injury, and to support « 
spirit and false ideas of honour* 1 
ing and accepting of a challenge 1 
is a declaration of war in miniature, 
imagine for instancci two blood tb 
fians upon the field of battle. Eac 
tires, and upon his knees supplic 
Ood of mercy to be propitious to h 
ers, and enable him to destroy th 
his antagonist. In the engagemen 
them is slain, and his poor soul, 
and unprepared, is hurried into the 
of its maker ! The survivor, staii 



one tender female h made a mournful and 

disconsolate widow ; but one familj of inno- 

r cent and helpless chidren is bereaved of the 

necessary help and protection kind heaven 

3 intended in an affectionate father. In nation- 
al wars, besides the immense destruction of 
^ raluable property, thousands, and frequent- 
ly, tens of thousands, are precipitated into 
an awful eternity, leaving helpless widows, 
and fatherless children, many of whom drag 
out the remainder of their lives dependent 
on the cold hand of charity. 

The rulers commence the quarrel, then 
compel their deluded subjects to fight, kill, 
and die, to end it. In war, as well as duels, 
both parties cannot be right, and, it is pre- 
sumed, since the battles of the children of Is- 
rael, all are wrong. Allowing these things 
to be correct, which the precepts of Jesus 
Christ will prove, what presumption, what 
mockery is it for men professing to be minis- 
ters of the Gospel, (the ministers of the con- 
fending armies being frequently of the same 
faith and church,) to insult the majesty of 
Heaven with petitions md thanks for their 
siiccess ! 


.«•' "„ i.* »S ■.■*»• "»•> I""' ,1* 


returned it, adding, that he heartily wished it wai 
going to be employed in a cause more serviceable to his 
country. His lordship answered, it could be of little 
fx>nsequence in that respect, let the event be what it 

Just as his lordship was opening the door for their 
departure, the lieutenant-general desired to know if 
there was any thing his lordship thought proper to com- 
nunicate ; to which he replied, it was very fortunate 
that he had mentioned that, and delivered a letter, di- 
rected for the Right Honourable the Ck)untess of b— , 
desiring that he would give it to her alone, and not up- 
on any consideration trust it to another hand ; as for 
his family affairs, he said they were already settled ac- 
cording to his will. On this they immediately left the 
apartment, and arrived somewhat before the appointed 
time, and took several turns from the lodge to the tree. 
His lordship several times expressed wonder at hisgrace's 
delay, though it was not two minutes by lieutenant D% 
Ijee's watch above the limited hour, when he arrived, 
attended with one second only. 

He bade his lordship a good morning, and hoped they 
had not waited for them long ; then pulled out his 
watch, said he had hit it to a point ; adding, at the 
same time, that he had rather die than break his prom- 
ise upon sudi an occasion. His lordship returned the 
expression with this addition, that though they had 
waited a little, there was sufficient time left to dispatch 
the business they were upon. To which his Grace re- 
plied, the (iooner it is despatched, the more leisure 
there will be behind. In the interim the seeonds wnre 
preparing their swords, and each one loaded his adver- 
sary'9 pistols : then agreed to the following terms : viz. 
Ist. That the distance of firing should not be less, at 
either time, than seven yards and a half. iZdIy. That 
if either should be dangerously wounded the first dis- 
cbarge, the duel should cease, and the wounded person 
would own his life in the hands of his antagonist. .Sdly. 
That between the firing and drawing their swords, 
there should be no limited time^buteachsUouU^tki.^v^^'vit 


meanfl, ihen the engagement shouhl ceae 
four artidefi tlicy both consented. His G 
his coat, which was scarlet trimmed wit 

lac«, when lord B 's second stepped i 

his waistcoat; on which, with some in 
Grace replied, do you take me to be a per 
honour, as to defend myself by such base 
ing a shield under my doublet ? Lieute 
De Lee desired his excuse, adding he was 
our to see justice to the cause he had espo 
The same ceremony passed upon his lord 
already pulled off his coat, which was 
broa^ silver lace ; and both the combatai 
ready, lord B^— -added, " Now, if it pleas 
come on," when they both instantly stepp 
cle. His Grace fired and mif sed, but Lord 
from more experience, knew that battles 
won by hasty measures, deliberately level 
and wounded his antagonist near the t 
both discharged again, when his Lordsh 
tlight wound in his turn, on which they ii 
their swords^ and impetuously charged ea( 
of them meditating the death of bis advc 
than his own safety. In the first or secon 


lie would make his way through his hody. Thus, aftef 
finding all remonstrances of saving them without effect, 
the seconds retired to their limited distance, and per- 
haps one of the most extraordinary duels ensued, that 
the records of history can produce, fairly disputed hand 
to hand. The parrying after this interval brou^ht on 
a close lock, which Mons des Barreux says, nothing but 
the key of the body can open ; in this position they 
ftood for, I dare say, a minute, striving to disengage 
«ach other, by successive wrenches ; in one of which 
his Grace's sword point got entangled in the guard of 
his Lordship's, which, in fact, his Lordship overlooked : 
flo that this disadvantage was recovered by his Grace, 
Jbefore the consequence, which it mi^ht have brought on, 
was executed. At last, in a very strong wrench on 
both sides, their swords sprung from their hands ; I 
^re say, his Lordship's flew six or seven yards upright. 
This accident, however, did not retard the affair a 
moment, but both seizing their thistles at the same time, 
the duel was renewed with as much malevolence as ever. 
By this time his Lordship had received a thrust through 
the inner part of bis sword arm, passing right forward 
to the exterior part of the elbow ; his, at the same time, 
passing a little over that of his antagonist, but alertly 
drawing back, I think partly before bis Grace had re- 
covered bis push, run him through the body a little 
nboYp the right pap. His Lordship's sword being thus 
engaged, nothing was left for his defence but a naked 
left arm, and his Grace being in this dangerous situation 
yet had f»ir play at almost any part of his Lordship's 
body ; yet he bravely put by several thrusts exactJy 
levelled at his throat, till at last having two fingers cut 
off by defending the pushes, and the rest mangled to a 
terrible degree, his Grace lodged his sword one rib be- 
low his heart, and in this affecting condition they both 
stood, without either being able to make another push, 
and each of them, by this time, was, in a manner, cover- 
ed with blood and gore ; when both the seconds stepped 
in, and begged they would consider their situation, and 
the good 0/ their future stale : \^Xii«v>^<tx vi^>i^^ ^«^- 


.»...u^ *T««,«i uio tuigu across nis sword, 
the middle. 

His Grace observing tkat he was no U 
of defence, or sensible of danger, immedia 
own, and fell on his body with the deepes 
cem, and both expired before any assist 
got, though Dr. Fountain had orders f 
not to be out of the way, in case he sh( 
npon that noming. Thus fell these two 
whofe personal bravery history can scare* 
whose honour nothing but such a cause coi 

This anecdote was signed JR. Deerhwiy v 
fumed, was his Grace's second. 

The AnHqtiity of Boxing and Wr 

Boxing at this time being a ver} 
and fashionable amusement, it m 
amiss to observe, that its antiquil 
ted from the Greeks, who crave c.c 


3at afterwards surrounded with thongs of 
leather, called cestuSf which at first were 
ibort, reaching no higher than the wristSi 
t>ut were afterwards enlarged, and carried 
dp to the elbow, and sometimes as high as 
the shoulder ; and in time they came to be ' 
used not only as defensive arms, but to an- 
noy the enemy, being filled with plummets 
Df lead and iron to add force to the blows. 
Those who prepared for this exercise, used 
all the means they could contrive to render 
themselves fat and fleshy^ that so they 
might be better able to endure blows, 
whence corpulent men or women were usu- 
ally called Pugiles, according to Terence. 

BoxiniT Match, near Tyhum Turnpike, -4itgfiw/ 20» 
18i20. — Berks^ and Belcher, according to the newspa- 
pers, bad never seen each other since thtir proposed 
match in Yorkskire, till Thursday the 19th instant, when 
they met by mere accident at Camherwell Fair, when 
Berks was observed entertaining a number of hearers 
with the manner in which he would strve it ovi to Bel- 
eher the first time he met with him. But though this 
seemed to happen unexpectedly, after some words ex- 
changed very rivilly. Belcher expressed his regret that 
Berks should have boasted in all companies of his su- 
perior prowess, and that he could beat Belcher with 
ease ; that Belcher was afraid to fight him, &c. &c. &c« 
Berks did not deny the charge. I'be consequence was, 
they agreed to fight immediately ; and, it is said, Berks 
attacked Belcher before he could get his shirt off. The 
csorobatants adjourned from the Tea Room to the Bow- 
ling Green, bdonging to the house where they met. 
Belcher, on his approaching Bevks^ ViiicvcJKfeA. ^'oX ^-v*. ^\ 
his front teeth, and gave blm eo wvwt «i \iVy« xw^^^^'^^* 

Q^«.««,ioiis respecting t 
they each went into sepepate I 
panied by their friends : viz. 

Belcher — Joe Ward, Second ; 
Series — Owen, (the Oilman,) i 

An immense crowd followed 1 
action ; viz the first open space 
pike, on the Uxbrid(;e road, bebi 
el, or St. George's Kow, which f 
parties arrived there about one o 
no time to erect a stage, a mos\ 
formed; the persons in the inner 
down, the second circle sitting, th 
knees, and outside of them the othi 
on the very outside, who couid n 
ten, were glad of an occasional ] 
aided by leaning on others' should< 

The notice was so short that thi 
were not very numerous, though 
about a dozen ; among whom wen 
Mr Crook, &c. Mr t?* • ' 


ceremony of crossing and shaking hands, they set to 
soon after one o'clock. 

First Round — Berks ran in upon Belcher. It wm 
evidently his hope to gain the battle by superior strength. 
Berks closed upon Belcher, and tried to throw him, 
but Belcher threw Berks. Some blows were struck, but 
no blood drawn. 

Second Round — Berks ran in upon Bekher, hoping to 
crush him by superior strength. Belcher put in a smart 
blow on his adversary's throat, and drew the first blood. 
They closed, and Belcher again threw Berks. 

Third Rcund. — Berks again ran in upon Belcher with 
ipreat spirit, and in doing so, planted a sharp blow on 
the right cheek bone, with his left hand ; he next put 
in a very severe blow between the left breast and the 
riioulder, which, if it had been placed lower, might, 
from its force, have been most important. He was aim- 
ing another blow with his left hand when Belcher ral- 
lied, struck a severe blow, closed, and brought Berks to 
the ground. 

Fourth Round, — Berks rushed upon Belcher, missed 
liM bk}w, and fell upon his knee. Some persons groan- 
ed, called out Berks was at his old tricks, and supposed 
Irim shifting, as he fell without a blow ; which if done 
Intentionally, we believe would have been contrary to 
the conditions of the fight ; but Berk's previous and sub- 
fequent conduct showed that such a charge was un- 
Ibunded, as he fought really with a steady spirit, and 
seemed to do his best. 

Fifth R&und — Berks ran in with great force, caught 
Belcher by the hams, doubled him up, and threw him in 
the style of a cross buttock : Belcher pitched on his 
head with such force, it was feared his neck was broken ; 
a cry ofFovJI foulV^ ran round : but Belcher rose as 
sprightly as ever, said he was not hurt, and in answer 
to the cries of foul ! said, " No, never mind." 

Sixth Roti7i({.— This and the tenth round were the most 
severe and decisive : Berks rushed in as usual. Sharp 
blows were struck on both sides. — Belcher put in a se- 
Tcre blow on the side of Berk'« bL«%.d^ ^tLsaXX^Kt ^^'^^ 


side of the neck, a third on the throRt, very severe: 
they closed, stnig^led, changed legs, each displayed biv 
utiunst skill and strength in wrestling; at last they both 
fell together alongside of each other, neither being up* 
permost, or able to claim, or really possesung the adraiH 
iage in the falK 

Seventh Round. — Berks was less gay, less eager. His 
strength lnanite^tly began to fail him ; but he did not 
show less •'pirit u hVn put to the test. They closed, and 
Belcher threw lieilcs. 

Eighth Hound — IWks began to stand on the defen- 
sive. At that he bad no chance. Belcher struck some 
sharp blows, and this round ended the same' as the for- 

Ninth I?oi/n/(.-B€ts, which were offering for the first five 
rounds of ten to five, and afterwards of five to one upon 
Belcher, were nr)vv offering of twenty to one in his fa* 
vour. Belcher did not seem exhausted : he in this, and 
every other round, while the parties were squaring, con- 
tiaued nodding and talking to Berks, striking at the 
same time, the most sudden, unexpected, and severe 
blows- This round ended like the former. 

Tenth Hound — I his was the most severe and decis- 
ive. Kerks set to with spirit, and came up the first to 
close quarters ; Bolclier struck very sharp ; cut Ber\fl 
under ihe left eye; thon under the right : next planted 
a blow between the throat and the chin, so severe, that 
it lifted Berks off his feet, and his head was the first part 
of him that came to (he ground. Belcher seemed to fall 
after this blow ; they both lay on the ground together; 
the blood gu>hed up BerkN throat : collected fully in hii 
mouth, he spirted it (»vcr Belcher, who was laying by 
him. Belcher did not relish it, and sworo that he would 
pay him for it the next raund. Berks said he did not do 
it d si^updly. 

Klcre*tth Hound —It was evident Berks was beaten* 
His face was one mass of bl-tod. Still he showed fight; 
some blows wTre exchanged, when they closed, and Bel« 
chcr threw Berks; but J^lcherfell on his hands, mani- 
fest)/ not wishing to hurt Berks more, as he might have 


fidlen upon faim with all his weight, and given him a se« 
Tere bruise thereby, as is customary, and deemed fair in 

Twelfth Round, — Berks showed symptoms of 
weakness, sitting on the ground, and having more as- 
sistance from his second than before. The result was 
the same as on the former round. 

Thirteenth Hound — Berks still came up. Belcher 
struck him five or six severe blown, and closed and threw 
him. Berks was heard to express a wish to give in ; 
bnt his second, wishing him to persevere, put a handker- 
chief in his mouth to stifle his utterance. 

Fourteenth Ryund. — Much the same. Berks showed 
spirit ; but his strength was gone, and he could only 
stand up to be beaten. It was evident he had no chance 
of success, eithernow or any other time during the bat- 
tle— After some sharp blows, Belcher closed, and again 
threw Berks upon his cheht, where he lay about three 
seconds, and then gave in. He was twice or thrice dis- 
tinctly a>ked by Belcher's second if he fiave in, and he 
as distinctly answered yes. — Indeed the poor man could 
scarcely see or stand, bein^ much beaten about the bo- 
dy, and cut iu the face so dreadfuliy, that it was almost 
impossible to distinguish a feature. He was put in a 
coach, and conveyed to a house in the neighbourhood of 
Grosvenor-square, and heard to groan very much on the 
way; and indeed if he had not survived so many severe 
beatings, we should fear that this would be his last. 
Belcher, on the contrary, did not appear tc have a sin- 
gle mark in his face, or upon his body, except a bruise 
on the left cheek bone, and another on the breast to- 
wards the shoulder. Immediately upon his being de- 
clai^d victor, he leaped up three times near three feet 
from the ground, to show that he had not suffered from 
the fight. After walking three times round the field he 
left the ground on foot, his particular friends accompa- 
nying him until they reached the road, where they took 
a coach to avoid the crowd. With respect to the a- 
mount of the bets, a frreat deal of money was offered up 
QVL the ground ; but public opinion was so decidedly in 

superiority, by running in upon h 
er, on the other hand, though he s 
when opposed body to body in cl 
antagonist, never closed but when 
it, and preferred that distance at 
avail himself of his science and pe< 
consist principally in a most extri 

Mr. Read, and some other amatc 
guineas for the winner, and five gi 
the battle. 

Notwithstanding Belcher's adva 
after the fight, he never had sucl 
Berks in his life. 

Siqtia est habitior pan 
aiunt. The exercise of w 
the combatants endeavoure 
other down, was another pi 
cients. Thej never enc< 
their joints and members hi 
rubbed, fomented, and s 
whereby all strains were pi 


bitiDg and scratcliing, and all manner of 
ways annoying their adversary ; whereby 
it often came to pass that the weaker com* 
batant, and who would never have been able 
to throw his antagonist, obtained the victory, 
and forced him to yield ; for in this exer- 
cise, as in boxing also, the victory was nev- 
er adjudged till one party had fairly yield- 
ed : this was sometimes done by words, and 
often by lifting up a finger. 

Tlie Matrinwnial Ring* 

The ring at first, according to Swinburne, 
was not of gold, but of iron, adorned with an 
adamant ; the metal hard and durable, sig- 
nifying the durance and prosperity of the 
contract* " Howbeit," he says, " it skil- 
leth not at this day what metal the ring be of. 
The form of it being round, and without end, 
doth import that their love should circulate 
aud flow continually. The finger on which 
this ring is to be worn, is the fourth finger on 
the left hand, next unto the little finger, be- 
cause there was supposed a vein of blood to 
pass from thence info the heart/' 


The derivation of the names of many principa 

Streets of London. 

Ave Maria Lane was so called^ in the ^ci« 


properlj Bakewell Hall, form 
to the ancient fanoiily of the 
from thence was called Basil 
whom also that word takes 
Colernan Street from Colemar 
don Ward from William and 
ringdon, the principal ownen 
ces. This Hall was called 
from Thomas Bakewell, who 
house in 36th Edward HI. 
1666, it w is rebuilt in 167 
Hospital, to whom the citj 
which are about eleven hui 

Change, Old, was so callei 
exchange kept there for the 


itood ther€, and was dissolved hy Henrjr 
the Eighth,) was founded and endowed at 
t)ie sole cost of Thomas Sutton, Esq. who 

!)aroiiased the house of the Earl oi Suffolk^ 
or 13,0001. It was opened October, 1614. 
The estate is now above 60001. per annum* 
..Cheapside derives its name from there 
being formerly a market held there, whicfa^ 
in Saxon, is a Cheap. 

Clerkenwell, or Clerk's Well, took its 
name from the parish clerks of London, who, 
of old, used to assemble there every year^ 
to play some large history of the Holy 

Covent, i. e. Convent Garden, was former- 
ly a garden belonging to the abbot and con- 
vent of Westminster. It was granted in 
1552, to John Earl of Bedford. 

Cripplegate was builr before the Con* 
quest, and took its name from the Cripples 
who used to beg there. It was repaired in 

Goodman's Fields were, in Stow's time, 
the field and farm of one Goodman. 

Gracechurch Street, formerly Grass 
Church Street, was so called from grass, or 
herbs, sold there. 

Gray's Inn, was a house belonging to the 
Grays of Witton, who resided there from 
1315, till the reign of Edward III. when 
they demised it to the studenlE cA \Vv«;\v« - 


Holborn was formerly a viUage, ca 
Old Born, or Hill Born, from a stream wl 
broke out near the place where the I 
now stand, and ran down the street to < 
Bourn Bridge, and so into the river of Fi 
now Fleet Ditch. This was long ago si 
ped up at the head, and in other pla< 
Holborn was first paved m 1535. 

Hounds Ditch, was formerly the i 
ditch, and, when open, was frequently fi 
with filth, as dead dogs, &c. whence 
name derives. 

Long Acre, in 1552, was a field, and n 
by the nnine of the Seven Acres. 

Pater Noster Row was so called from 
stationers, or text-writers, who dwelt th< 
and wrote and sold all sorts of books ti 
in use, viz. A, B, C, with the Pater Nos 
Ave, Creed, Graces Sic. There dwelt \ 
turners of beads, and they were called 
ter Noster makers. 

Piccadilly was so called from the I 
cadillos, i. e. the stiff collars, or bands, 
merly worn, by which a tailor got an est; 
and built the first house there. 

Privy Garden, was so called, becaua 
was appropriated to the King's private i 
while he resided at Whitehall. 

Rood Lane, was so called from a R< 
placed there in St. Mary's Churchyi 


while the old church was rebuilding, during 
which time the oblations made to this rood 
were employed towards building the church. 
Royal Exchange, (See Frontispiecic) wai 
erected by Sir Thomas Gresham in 1567, 
on the scite of 80 houses, and was so named 
by Queen Elizabeth in person, by sound of 
trumpet, Sec. in 1570. Being destroyed by 
the Are in 1666, it was rebuilt soon after at 
€6,0002. expense, King Charles the Second 
laying the first stone. 

Spitlal Fields were so called, from the 
priory of St. Mary (dissolved by Henry 
the Eighth) where sermons were annually 
preached in the Easter holidays, as they 
are now at St. Bride's, and thence are 
called Spitlal sermons. 

Somerset House, (the former one,) was 
built by the Duke of Somerset, lord protec* 
tor, and uncle to Edward the Sixth, in 1549, 
and on his attainder it was forfeited to the 
crown. The back front was built on a de- 
sign of Inigo Jones, by his sonin-law, Mr. 

The Temple was founded by the Knights 
Templars, in 1185, but they being suppressr 
ed in 1310, it was given by Edward the 
Third to the Knights of John of Jerusalem, 
^nd they soon after leased it to the studentti 



of the law, io whose posBesBion it has coa- 
tinued ever since. 

Tower (White,) was founded b^ William 
the Conqueror in 1078, and in 1190 it wai 
compassed with a wall and ditch. It was 
almost new built in 1637 — 8. Wild beasts 
were first kept there in 1285 ; three leop- 
ards being then sent by the emperor to 
Henry the Third. Gold was first coined 
there in 1344, and criminals were first exe- 
cuted on Tower Hill in 1466. 

Westminster Abbey, (See Frontispiece,) 
was built by Henry the Third, and finished 
after fifty years' labour, in 1220. Henry 
Vn. built his chapel on the east side in 
1502, at 14,0001. expense. It was made a 
collegiate church by Queen Elizabeth, in 
1559, who at the same time founded the 

Westminster Hall was built by William 
Rufus, about 1097. The king's palace, of 
which this was a part, wasburnt in 1512. 
The courts of law were fixed there in 1224. 

Whitehall was so named by Henry the 
Eighth, on its being forfeited to him by 
Cardinal Wolsey's attainder. It was before 
called York Place, and was the palace of 
the Archbishop of York. It was the resi- 
dence of the king till 1697, when it was 
burnt down. 


Whitehall Chapel was formerly the king's 
banqueting house, and is all that remains 
of the palace there, to which it was added 
by James the Firstj according to a design 
of Inigo Jones. 


This particular day was termed Ash- Wed- 
nesday from the custom which was observ- 
ed in the ancient church, of penitents' ap- 
pearing publicly in sackcloth and ashes, in 
token of their humiliation. 

In the time of Henry the Eighth, it is 
remarked in Fuller's Church History, that 
the custom of giving ashes on Ash- Wednes- 
day, to put every man in remembrance that 
he is but ashes and earth, and thereto shall 
return, was almost the only Catholic super- 
stition which survived the shock of Reform- 

Muckj or running a Muek^ 
Is a practice that has prevailed time im- 
memorial in Batavia. To run a muck, ' in 
the original sense of the word, is to get in- 
toxicated with opium, and then rush into the 
street with a drawn weapon, and kill any one 
that comes in the way^UlV \Vve ^^xV^ \^ \S>sfi«- 

broken alive on me wLeei : i 
fury of their desperation, tl 
four are necessarily destroys 
to secure them* 

From this horrid custom, 
originated the common vulg 
muck sweat, applied to p 
a grest heat of bodjr, occas 
cise^ &c« 

PaknrBranehes^ ancient cm 

The palm branch, or palo 
cienflj used as an emblem c 
earried before the conquerc 
and rejoicings for having ovc 
my. it was also presentee 
Syria as a token of subipiss 

rF«i-?_ A_- 


the top of its trunk : there are two sorts, the 
male and female ; the male renders the other 
fruitful by means of a flower which is enclos- 
ed in its fruit ; the leaves turn round like 
curls in hair, and their extremities hang 
down towards the ground. 

Newspapers^ when first published. 
Newspapers were first published in Eng- 
land August 22d, 1642v Journal des Sa^ 
vansy a French paper, was first published in 
1665, though one was printed in England 
under the title of the Public Intelligencer^ 
hy Sir Roger L'Estrange, 1663, which he 
dropped on the publication of the first Lon- 
don Gazette* Newspapers and pamphlets 
were prohibited by royal proclamation, 1680* 
Though at the revolution prohibitions of 
this kind were done away, and the press set 
at liberty ; yet newspapers were afterwards 
made objects of taxation, and for this pur- 
pose were first stamped in 1713, and the 
number of them has been gradually increas- 

ing ever smce. 




April Fools, origin of tbe cus- 
tom of making - 17 
Amen, origu oithe saying of 23 
Aiinan(!ii!e,Mar(]ui8of, his cre8U4 
Anecdote, meanmg of the i»ord 66 
Ash Wednesday, why so call- 
ed - - - - 103 
Ave Maria, why so called 63 
Ave Maria Lane, ditto. 97 


Bull, That's a - - 23 

Bishop and his Clerks, rocks 

why so named - 26 

Bar', er's Fnles, origin of 31 

Bull aud Mouth, ditto. 40 

Bull and Gate, ditto. 41 

Bell lavage, ditta 41 

Blue Balls, ditto. 42 

Bard^, anti(}uit? of - 61 

Barbers, origin of - 71 

Baol' ei8, antiquity of - 77 

Boxinz, - - - 90 

Bishopsgate, antiquity of 98 

YtN.<Kwnll Hall. ditto. ib 

Curfew bell, w 
Chapel, deriva 
Cnrdwainers, v 
'Change, Old, a 
'Change Roya] 
Charing CrosM, 
Charter house 
Clerk en well, ' 

Dun, origin of 
Devil and Do 
Distilling, firs 
Duelling, orig 

Evergreens a* 

Economy, de 

England, whe 



^ racechurchstreet) 
Gray's inn, 



Page. Page. 

99 Origin of the late buildings, 
99 commonly called Bedlam, 

99 inMoorfields - - 19 

Healths, drinking, origin of 36 
Hobson's choice^ proverb of 39 
Hungary water, why so call- 
ed ... 67 
Hurly Burly, ditto. 57 
Hackney coaches, why so call- 
ed _ - - 73 
Holborn, ditto. 100 
Hounds ditch, ditto 100 


Jubilee, origin of 



Lord , my, origin of the title 17 
Lammas-Day, wh^ so called 28 
Laureat Poet, origin of the ti- 
tle - - - 37 
Jx)rd, origin of the title, 58 
Lady, ditto. 59 
Late Wake, meaning of the 

terra - - - 59 

liOtteries, the first in England 66 
Long Acre, why so called 100 


M i nories, why so called 28 

May -poles, origin of their erec- 
tion '- 48 
Measures, Liquid, antiquity 

of - - - 75 

Matrimonial Ring, ditto. 97 

Muck, or running a muck 103 

No penny, no Pater Noster 20 

N ightingale, to sing like one 46 

News, origin of the word 51 

N e ws-papers, first published 105 


Ostler, origio of the title 



Parliament, derivation of the 

word - - 19 

Papier, first invention of 28 

Pall Mall, why so called 29 

Pancakes at ^hrovetide, custom 

of ... 39 

Puritanical Fellow, why so call- 
ed - - - - 44 
Paradise, ditto. 53 

Pancake Bell, ditto. 40 

Pilgrimage, origin of 55 

Pater Noster Row, why so na- 

♦ med - - - 100 

Piccadilly, ditto. ib. 

Privy Gardens, ditto. ib. 

Palm-branches, ancient use 

of - - - 104 

Rosemary, custom of being used 

at funerals - - 47 

Rome not huiit in a day 52 

Recluse, origin of the word 54 
Rood Lane, why so called 100 
Royal Exchange, when first 
erected - - 101 


Sack, origin of the word 15 

Surplices, antiquity of wearing 20 
Snuflfand tobacco, first intro 

duced - - - 23 

Saddler's Wells, origin of 36 
Selah, meanlog of the ancient 

word - - - 51 

Sabbath, - - - 68 

Sunday, - - - 70 

Shooter's Hill, why so called 77 
Sommerset House, dittos lol 
Spittalfields, ditto. loi 


Tory and Whig, - 3« 

Top, he sleeps like one, pro v« 

Toi«y Tanj, derintimi of 
ttrOtY, etjmtAntr <i the 

;rWUU.arToiiBrHiD II 

VtEMablH, origin oC Iheir io- 

Vilemines.orleiiior - 3 
Vcgetiblei. •Then ami ntco in 

Enfland - - - 3 
Vigils or Etu, uicleiit cuitamg 

let, ronicB, 
WreUllBi, intiqiutyi 
" -srAMiej,! 

Yew IreBS, why pluted In 
Tev bmiclieBt vhf euHed at